Technical Analysis: A method of evaluating securities by analyzing statistics generated by market activity, such as past prices and volume. Technical analysts do not attempt to measure a security's intrinsic value, but instead use charts to identify patterns that can suggest future activity. Technical analysts believe that the historical performance of stocks and markets are indications of future performance.

Trend: The general direction of the price of an asset or market. Trends can be thought of in varying lengths including short, intermediate and long term. If one can identify a trend, it can be highly profitable as you will be able to trade with the trend. It is best as a general strategy to trade with trends, meaning if the general trend of the market is headed up be very cautious towards taking any positions that rely on the trend going in the opposite direction.

. Trend has three directions:

1. Uptrend: When each successive peak and trough is higher than the previous one, prices are assumed to be in an uptrend. It is so named because the direction of prices is upward. Buying strength is the trading strategy to follow in such kind of a market.

2. Downtrend: When each successive peak and trough is lower than the previous one, prices are assumed to be in a downtrend. It is so named because the direction of prices is downward. Selling weakness is the trading strategy to follow in such kind of a market.

3. Sideways market: When prices are stuck in a range-they are neither going up or down in any significant manner-the market is said to be in a sideways trend or rather it is trendless. Buying weakness and selling strength should be the trading strategy to follow in a sideways range-bound market.

. Trend has three classifications:

1. Minor or Short-term Trend: The trend that lasts from five days to about three weeks are known as the short term or minor trend.

2. Intermediate or Medium term Trend: The trend that lasts for more than three weeks to six months may be called an intermediate trend. Medium term trend is somewhat synonymous to intermediate trend but is generally used to describe price trends that last between two months to six months.

3. Long term Trend: Any trend that continues for more than six months to several years is categorized as a long term trend.

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Accumulation: It is a phase in price activity where the range in which prices move around is relatively small and volume is comparatively small, and the final breakout is on the upside. This accumulation phase is generally found after a sustained downtrend and is normally found around the bottom.

Distribution: It is a phase in price activity where the range in which prices move around is relatively small and volume is comparatively small than the preceding phase when prices were rising, and the final breakout from the range happens on the downside. This phase is generally found after a sustained uptrend and is normally found around the top.

Consolidation: After a sustained swing in prices, market tends to take a breather and prices tend to oscillate within a range before resuming the original trend. This intervening phase is known as consolidation. 

Support: The level of prices where demand for the asset or security overpowers supply. It is the level from which prices tend to bounce back upward or arrest its downward movement.

Resistance: The level of prices where supply for the asset or security overpowers demand. It is the level from which prices tend to reverse course and move down again or halt.

Volume: Number of security or assets-in equity markets shares, in futures markets contracts-traded within a given period of time. In market statistics published in newspapers, it is generally the number of securities or contracts traded during the day in question.

Open: This relates to the price of the first trade done for any security during the day or any given time period.

High: This relates to the highest price reached during the day or the time period in question.

Low: This relates to the lowest price reached during the day or the time period in question.

Close: This normally refers to the last traded price for the security during the trading day or any given time period. However, some exchanges like the National Stock Exchange (NSE) take a weighted average of the last half an hour's price activity.

Stop loss: Stop loss is an essential risk control mechanism. One should always keep it in mind while initiating a trade. Stop losses are generally given so that there is a level below /above which the market will tell us that the call has gone wrong. It would always be there.

 

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